The RTB Creation Model
It's been ~30 years since Hugh Ross founded Reasons To Believe, and the creation-science model that he (and his team) have developed during this period is nothing short of amazing. Behold the work of Christians that have honored the call of Christ to be good scientists and good theologians, where our next generation can confidently stand on the shoulders of 2,000 years of Church scholasticism that have lead to ministries like Reasons to Believe. In a nutshell, here is the RTB model, ranging from the macro-scale of the universe, to the micro-scale, that do not contradict the biblical account of creation, as summarized in these two books:
1. Origin of the Universe
Two books that Hugh has authored on this topic:
Both are up-to-date with the latest research, showcasing that the bible is consistent with the big bang that occurred 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago via:
- maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation;
- past cosmic temperatures that establishes the universe cooling from a near infinitely hot, compact state;
- spreading apart of galaxy clusters and galaxies;
- measurements of the cosmic expansion rates throughout the universe’s past history;
- absence of black dwarf stars;
- abundances of radioisotopes;
- stellar burning time measurements;
- white dwarf cooling curves.
Hugh concludes: "Space-time theorems establish that a causal Agent beyond space and time created the universe."
2. Origin of Life
Two books (one co-authored with Fazale Rana) that specialize on this topic are:
Both of these books showcase that scientists haven't found ribose, arginine, lysine, or tryptophan (molecules critical for assembling proteins, RNA, and DNA), either on Earth or elsewhere in the universe.
Hugh concludes: "No conceivable naturalistic scenario is able to generate the large, stable ensembles of homochiral ribose and homochiral amino acids that all naturalistic origin-of-life models require, affirming why no such natural sources have ever been found. Many of life’s critical building block molecules cannot last outside of organisms and their decay products for more than just days, hours, or minutes. Early Earth’s abundance of uranium and thorium (by their radiometric decay) would have split enough of Earth’s surface water into hydrogen and oxygen to shut down the chemical pathways to a naturalistic origin of life. The measured time window between Earth’s deadly, hostile environment for life and an abundance of life is narrower than a few million years. Even with high-tech lab facilities, biochemists cannot make RNA or DNA with genuine self-replication capability."
3. Origin of Humans
Though I personally hold to human evolution (and believe Adam and Eve were real people, though were not the first humans, since I take the account of Genesis 2 as real history following from the pre-Adamic humans in Genesis 1, showcasing the existence of these humans in the Persian Gulf ~70,000 years ago), there's valuable insights from their 10-year revision update to their original 2005 book Who was Adam.
Hugh concludes: "A wealth of scientific evidence shows that humans alone, as distinct from Neanderthals, Homo erectus, and other species, possess the capacity for symbolic recognition, for complex language, art, and music, and for spiritual and philosophical engagement. Humans alone manifest awareness of God, sin, moral judgment, and life beyond death. Humans alone demonstrate technological advancement, including the development of agriculture and civilization. New evidence shows that even during episodes of extreme environmental instability, humans were able to maintain small mixed farms (with multiple species of crops and livestock) and to manufacture flour and clothing."
4. Fine-Tuning of the Universe and Earth
Hugh's life-work in this area is summarized thoroughly in:
Hugh concludes: "More than 100 different features of the universe and the laws of physics must be exquisitely fine-tuned to make advanced life possible. More than 800 different features of our galaxy and planetary system must be fine-tuned for advanced life to possibly exist. The fine-tuning evidences rise exponentially as one proceeds from what is needed for microbes, to what is needed for plants and animals, to what is needed for humans, to what is needed for billions of humans to understand and respond to the Creator’s offer of redemption from sin and evil. The fine-tuning evidence also rises exponentially as scientists progressively learn more about the universe, Earth, and Earth’s life."
5. Genesis and Science concordism
Last, but certainly not least, Hugh's commentary on Genesis from a scientific perspective should be required reading by all Christians, if they ever hope to engage with science specialists who think that the Genesis creation account contradicts science:
Hugh concludes: "Genesis 1:2 establishes the frame of reference for the six-day creation account as the surface of Earth’s waters, and it describes four initial conditions: ubiquitous darkness and water on Earth’s surface, no life, and unfit conditions for life. On day 1, Earth’s atmosphere becomes translucent (“let there be light”). On day 4, the atmosphere becomes transparent (“let there be lights in the expanse of the sky”). The Hebrew word for day, yom, has four literal definitions, one of which is a long, finite time period. That day 7 is not closed out by an “evening and morning” implies that the creation days are consecutive long time periods. Thus, Genesis 1 accurately predicted both the description, timing, and order of the events of creation."
Well done, good and faithful servant.