This video is a response for anyone who would like a simple concise refutation of the ancient astronaut nonsense. It's furthermore shocking that the History Channel even promotes this tripe. So, why does modern technology appear in these Egyptian hieroglyphs? It's relatively simple: they are palimpsests.
What is a palimpsest? Scribes, craftsmen, and carvers all made hieroglyphic errors. As the lecture shows, what happens when someone realizes a mistake has been made? How did the ancient Egyptians erase, especially when it was carved in stone? You will see how that process created some confusing jumbles. Often, carvers were illiterate. They were artists, skilled at forming the hieroglyphs, but they couldn't read what they were copying. Priests would give them the texts to carve on the wall, and they would go do it. But sometimes they copied the same phrase twice, and sometimes they left something out. Then the head priest would come in to check the work and he would discover the error. To correct problems, the ancient Egyptians would fill in the incorrect hieroglyphs with plaster so the wall was smooth, and then re-carve the wall and plaster with the correct inscription. We know this happened often because over the course of thousands of years, some plaster has fallen out and we can see the errors beneath the correct texts.
Therefore, the writing of one text over another is called a palimpsest, from the Greek palimpsestos, which means "scraped again." The Greeks wrote on both papyrus and parchment. Papyrus was made from the papyrus plant and parchment from animal skins. Both were expensive, so when a text was no longer needed, you scraped the ink off so you could reuse the writing surface. Almost always, these scrapings left traces of the original texts, and often the original text is more important to modern scholars than what was written on top of it. With modern infrared photography and computer enhancement, often these earlier texts can be reconstructed.
The palimpsests in Unas's pyramid are far from the only ones in Egypt. They can be found on temple walls throughout Egypt, and one example is often presented as support for the ancient astronaut theory: the idea that an advanced civilization came from outer space and showed the ancient Egyptians advanced technology. The palimpsest in question is the temple at Abydos. Seti I started the construction of the temple but died before it was completed. His son, Ramses the Great, finished the monument. The temple originally had seven entrances, so Ramses bricked up six of them so he would have additional surface area to carve his own inscriptions, proclaiming what a great son he was for completing his father's temple. But that wasn't enough for Ramses. Inside the temple he carved out many of his father's titles and cartouches and replaced them with his own.
Just inside the entrance to the temple is a hypostyle hall (a room where columns support a ceiling). The ceiling rests on lintels, blocks spanning the columns. One of these lintel blocks has become a pilgrimage site for ancient astronaut theorists. On the block is a palimpsest created when Ramses re-carved the hieroglyphs on his father’s monument. Now that the plaster and over-painting has fallen down, we have a jumble of overlaid hieroglyphs that happens to look like machines. The hieroglyphs that make up the spacecraft are actually an overlay of the Two Ladies names of Seti I and Ramses II. The crucial part of Seti’s name for us is the part that forms the flying machines that translates to "Smiter of the Nine Bows."
If you look closely at the carving of the helicopter, the rotor blades are the top of the bow hieroglyph. The submarine is basically the hand hieroglyph for d. Beneath it, the flying saucer is given its shape by the mouth r. Beneath that, the airplane is composed of the arm hieroglyph, with the shoulder forming the tail. The remaining details of the spacecraft are made up of the overlay of Ramses’s Two Ladies name. His name means that he protects Egypt but oppresses foreign lands. Finally, the tail of the helicopter is supplied by the arm hieroglyph's shoulder. The flying saucer's tail is made up of the shoulder from the eh arm hieroglyph. Dropping down to the airplane in the lower right, we see its cockpit is the t in Kemet.